- “gives certain elements greater importance, significance, or stress than other elements in the text” (31).
- “the difference between elements, where the combination of those elements makes on element stand out from another” (33).
- “the way in which elements are arranged to form a coherent unit or functioning whole” (34).
- How elements are arranged relative to one another; horizontal and vertical alignment affect the ways in which “our eyes move across a text” (35).
- How closely elements (visual or aural) are placed to one another (36).